Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013 http://archive.org/details/educationofemotiOOhenr BALDWIN LECTURES in TEACHER EDUCATION & JOSEPH BALDWIN Pioneer Educator By HOMER L KNIGHT. 1957. $1.50 JOSEPH BALDWIN A Dedicated Teacher Educator By JAMES C. MATTHEWS. 1959. $1.50 THE HORIZON BEYOND By T. M. STINNETT. 1960. $1.50 THE EDUCATION OF THE EMOTIONS By HENRY H. HILL, 1961. $1.50 THE EDUCATION OF THE EMOTIONS The Baldwin Lecture, 1961 THE EDUCATION OF THE EMOTIONS by Dr. Henry H. Hill President George Peabody College for Teachers Nashville, Tennessee Kirksville 1961 Ul ATLA . , WILSQM, N. a Copyright, 1961 by Northeast Missouri State Teachers College Kirksville, Missouri Printed by Simpson Printing Company Kirksville, Missouri - THE BALDWIN LECTURESHIP To honor the memory of Joseph Baldwin, 1827-1899, the College he founded has established a Lectureship in teacher education. The study of is- sues arising in teacher education is a fitting tribute to President Baldwin, a pioneer in teacher education. This Lec- tureship has been established to per- petuate the spirit of Baldwin's industry and vision, and to contribute to the solution of problems in the field to which he devoted his life. President Baldwin left a precious heritage to this teacher-education institution he so nobly founded in 1867. The lectures are to be published annually by the Teachers College. 1957 Walter H. Ryle HENRY H. HILL, Ph.D. The Education of the Emotions Page 13 THE EDUCATION OF THE EMOTIONS This is my fourth visit to North- east Missouri State Teachers College. I recall pleasantly the commencement exercises of 1951 when Mr. George Hawkins, assistant superintendent of the St. Louis Public Schools, and Mrs. Hawkins were present as honored members of the class of 1901, this being the fiftieth anniversary of their graduation. At that time students were seated alphabetically, so Mrs. Haw- kins, whose maiden name begins with H, sat next to Mr. Hawkins. Let this be a warning, or perhaps a stimulus, to the unmarried, to be alert to the dangers and advantages of alpha- betical seating. It is a pleasure to join you in honoring Joseph Baldwin, your first Page 14 The Education of the Emotions president and a pioneer American edu- cator, whose fruitful years of adminis- tration at this institution of higher education helped make it an Alma Mater of which so many able teachers and school administrators can be proud. President J. C. Matthews of North Texas State College and Dr. Homer L. Knight of Oklahoma State University have in past Baldwin Lec- tures paid just tribute to this dis- tinguished man who fought against ignorance and for enlightment when the going was tougher than it is to- day. The ties between George Pea- body College for Teachers and North- east Missouri State Teachers College have been many. Your graduates have come to study on our Peabody campus from time to time. Some of our able graduates have joined your faculty, The Education of the Emotions Page 15 including your president who has for many years been keeping everything shipshape in this section of the edu- cational world. He is one of those most responsible for the beautiful campus which has become part of the heritage of so many generations of students. I have selected as my subject "The Education of the Emotions," fully aware of the fact that little is known about how to educate the emo- tions along proper channels and to- ward worthy ends. Probably it must remain an art which is never fully mastered. I am indebted to one of my fa- vorite teachers, Dr. Thomas H. Briggs, professor emeritus of Teachers Col- lege, Columbia University, for the subject. I remember more of what he said in my classes in 1927 and 1928 Page 16 The Education of the Emotions than I do of what all my other teach- ers have said. I wrote him during the recent Christmas holidays telling him this. His reply should be especially interesting to teachers and those who would teach. I quote in part. I have often envied a mason who at the end of a day or even an hour knows precisely what he has accomplished. A teacher sel- dom knows; he can only hope. And testimony such as yours truly maketh the heart glad. Dr. Briggs once used, as an il- lustration of the effect of the emo- tions, the story of his growing resent- ment one morning as he walked down the halls of Teachers College. He found himself becoming more and more irritated, and he could not ac- count for it. He had had a good break- The Education of the Emotions Page 17 fast, and nobody had insulted him. Then it dawned on him that he was hearing the loud buzz of a professor who was lecturing in a classroom down the hall. He didn't like certain characteristics of this professor, and the effect of hearing his voice— the voice of the man he did not like— was "ruining the whole day for him-" Dr. Briggs thinks we should not give way to this kind of feeling, but that we should recognize the secondary effects that come upon us as a result of our emotions. In his excellent book of 1926 entitled Curriculum "Problems is a chapter on "Emotionalized Atti- tudes" which is still one of the best treatments of the subject. He suggests six approaches to the problem which he believes are, in varying degrees, effective. Granted certain recognizable limitations to any one of these meth- Page 18 The Education or the Emotions ods, or all six, they are worth study and application in 1961. The use of precepts is his first suggestion. Over the past generation the formal use of precepts has de- clined but the great teachers of the world have always used them. He second suggestion is formal instruction. We have such formal in- struction in the Sunday Schools, and to a degree in our private and public schools. His third suggestion is through incidental instruction. Perhaps this is less impressive but often effective. Most of us who have attained some maturity can recall incidental instruc- tion through the spoken word of a teacher or through observation that has affected our attitude for the better. His fourth suggestion is personal example; potentially, perhaps, the The Education of the Emotions Page 19 most effective of the six. "What you do speaks so loudly that I cannot hear you." His fifth means is experience fol- lowed by satisfaction. This method is especially useful in the early grades where children quickly respond to judicious praise and recognition or quickly wilt under haphazard or point- less criticism. Briggs' sixth suggestion is what he calls ritual. We note this in con- nection with churches, lodges, and the military organizations, and more re- cently in the inauguration of our youngest President. Ritual can be an impressive method of building right attitudes. Henry Clay Lindgren's Mental Health in Education, published in 1954, is an excellent book for teachers and mature parents. His chapter deal- Page 20 The Education of the Emotions ing with the problems of adjustment which every teacher faces is practical. We need, as we have always needed, professional teachers-those who learn their profession well and stick to it through good and bad, through times of criticism and times of praise. Lind- gren discusses the emotional strain on teachers, and suggests ways of living which will eliminate some of the un- desirable effects of this strain. It is the best recent book that has been called to my attention. Emotion and the Educative Pro- cess, a 1937 report of the Committee on the Relation of Emotion to the Edu- cative Process, was written under the chairmanship of Dr. Daniel Alfred Prescott, at that time professor of edu- cation in Rutgers University. The thoughts and suggestions, regarding personnel problems in education, are The Education of the Emotions Page 21 particularly good. This book presents valuable insight into the physiology and psychology of what the authors term affective behavior. In my opin- ion, this book will always be one of the basic references for our teaching profession and for laymen interested in mental hygiene. The breaking in of a thorough- bred horse and the proper discipline of a teen-age boy present similar prob- lems. The purpose is to curb poten- tially bad tendencies and to encourage potentially good ones. The difficulty in both cases is to keep from breaking the spirit of the horse or boy. Better to have a less thoroughly disciplined horse or boy than to have one so com- pletely disciplined that he lacks the will to run. I wish that dominating parents of strong character, so deter- mined and ambitious for their sons or Page 22 The Education of the Emotions daughters, could realize this latter fact. Most of us know that learning is rarely single. We usually learn two or more things at the same time. In addition to learning mathematics, for example, we may learn to like mathe- matics or to dislike it, as the case may be. Born disliking buttermilk I have never willingly taken a glass. On the other hand, I like what we used to call egg custard pie. Once our cook made a buttermilk custard pie which looked amazingly like the egg custard pie which I enjoyed. Since a small boy's eyes are frequently bigger than his stomach, I took a sizeable piece. It had the genuine buttermilk flavor, and I was ready to quit after the first distasteful bite, but my father looked in my direction and told me to finish The Education of the Emotions Page 23 what I had taken on my plate. I did. My father wanted me to learn not to take something on my plate unless I could eat it. He succeeded, but at the same time he taught me never, on any occasion or under any condition, to take another piece of buttermilk custard pie. During the Christmas holidays I noticed my son-in-law insisting that his nine-year-old daughter eat oysters whether she liked them or not. Sur- reptitiously, as may be permitted to an irresponsible grandfather, I forked over to my plate two or three of the offending oysters. Liza managed to satisfy her father by eating most of the other oysters, but I wondered if he might not be teaching her a perma- nent dislike for oysters. He was, of course, trying to teach her to eat and like everything. Page 24 The Education of the Emotions All of us recall the early experi- ment in conditioning by the Russian scientist Pavlov. He performed a minor operation on the dog used in his experiment so that the extent of the flow of saliva could be seen and measured. Just before feeding the dog Pavlov started a metronome to con- dition the dog to the fact that when he heard the metronome he was going to be fed. The flow of saliva was in- creased. Eventually the sound of the metronome produced the same reac- tion without the use of food. Pavlov believed that there were "unconditioned" or inborn reflexes in every animal, and by inference in hu- man beings, but that conditioned re- flexes became in time just as much a part of the physiological activity of living beings. For example, painful childhood experiences may result in The Education of the Emotions Page 25 conditioned refllexes which are as im- portant as inborn refllexes. Both the German Nazis and the Russian Communists have educated or trained the emotions to bring about what we regard as terrible results. We believe in the education of free men and do not, therefore, believe in con- ditioning the emotions so completely that there is subservience or spineless conformity. Sometimes we are very severe on our rebels who refuse to conform to our inherited and cher- ished ideals and notions and, in some cases, prejudices. In most cases I sup- pose we are properly indignant; but, if we avoid the condition which the Nazis and the Communists deliber- ately sought, we should continue to give a hearing to honest and sincere nonconformists. Peter Ustinov in his recent novel, Page 26 The Education of the Emotions The Loser, provides in Hans Winter- schild a striking illustration of the Nazi plan of educating the emotions. The German teachers and leaders did a good job of emotional conditioning on Hans. After serving on the Russian front for many months during World War II, Hans was transferred to a little town in Italy where he willingly ordered shot down anybody or any- thing- dogs, geese, grandmothers, babies- that had shown resistance to the German soldiers quartered there. Thoroughly conditioned by the Nazis, he felt no guilt and no emotion after his cruel deed, then or later. Perhaps you have read Eich- mann's story in a recent issue of Life. Eichmann was immediately respon- sible for the cruel treatment and even- tual death through shooting or in the gas chambers of tens of thousands of The Education of the Emotions Page 27 Jews during World War II. He tells the story without remorse or guilt and apparently with a touch of pride. In fact, one may suspect that he wanted to be discovered in his hiding place in Argentina. Both Winterschild and Eichmann are illustrations of successful condi- tioning for evil purposes. A Baptist friend tells of an old- fashioned Baptist sect officially known as the "Two Seed in the Spirit Pre- destinarian Baptists." This particular group believed that a person is born with two seeds in him, one good seed and one bad seed. Members of this group believed that one seed was pre- destined to achieve dominance and thus determine the nature and be- havior of the individual. Whether we believe in this par- ticular tenet, or in original sin as Page 28 The Education of the Emotions taught by our theological forefathers, or in transmission of evil impulses through the germ plasm, or simply that all of us have an inborn capacity for good and evil, we must agree that today we have ample evidence of the effect of the emotions of hatred and prejudice. The faces of mob leaders and participants in the mob, whether the occasion be labor union or deseg- regation violence or whatnot, accur- ately register their emotions of hatred and cruelty. We ourselves are not im- mune. Except for our better environ- ment which afforded good homes, schools, and churches, we might be- come members of these mobs. Some years ago, the head of the Department of Psychology of the Uni- versity of Kentucky conducted experi- ments to measure Palmer Pressure. Through appropriate apparatus, he The Education of the Emotions Page 29 measured the rise in blood pressure, the moistness of the palms, and other signs of emotional excitement which occurred under different stimuli. Fa- cetiously but not without a certain amount of truth, he reported that fir- ing a pistol to the rear of an Eastern Kentucky mountain boy failed to raise his pressure at all. Perhaps, if his ap- paratus were attached to me at this moment, he would find that I am go- ing through the process of whatever excitement it takes to make a good speech, or so I would hope! When I started speaking years ago, I had to put both hands behind my back and hold hands with myself to keep from shaking. This was caused by an emotional condition called stage fright. It is comforting to note that some of the great actors of our day still suffer from stage fright. You Page 30 The Education or the Emotions would never think that Helen Hays, superb veteran artist that she is, would experience stage fright, but she does. I believe younger people today are less subject to this. Sometimes emotional experiences are so vivid, so humiliating, or so long-sustained that they have a life- long traumatic impact. Some such ex- periences, minor in nature, need cause us no great concern. One experience of no great significance, but illustra- tive of what I am talking about, oc- curred to me as a graduate student in New York City. In a plush Fifth Avenue apart- ment district I walked into an expen- sive fruit store. I had learned one thing in New York which I have never forgotten, and that is to ask how much before I contract to buy. And so I asked the proprietor, "Have The Education of the Emotions Page 31 you got an apple for a nickel?" I re- member his reply as much for his sneering tone as for the words, "Don't come in here unless you are going to spend more than a nickel." I would feel better to this very moment if I had hit him. Startled I turned on my heel and walked out. For several blocks I kept thinking of going back. Despite my possible physi- cal defeat and arrest in a big, strange city, there would have been an im- mense satisfaction gained by hitting him. The best thing to do about little insults of this sort is to forget them or to exorcise them by laughing at yourself and perhaps by telling a friend. Through the skillful use of his own emotions and with the proper stage effects, Adolf Hitler directed a whole nation down the path of mad- Page 32 The Education of the Emotions ness and eventual defeat. For an en- tirely different purpose, Billy Sunday used to employ his emotions in the old days when he was the great saw- dust trail evangelist. Billy Graham, who may perhaps be called his modern successor, is skilled in creating the proper setting for thinking about things of the next world. Hitler and Stalin for evil purposes, and the two Billys for good purposes, illustrate the use of the emotions in influencing tens of thousands of people. Not many of us are going to be asked or find it possible to direct the emotions of thousands of people. But each one of us day by day, in college or in daily life, in our homes and places of work, can contribute some- thing to the emotional life of those around us and do something to im- prove our own. In our efforts, we The Education of the Emotions Page 33 should remember that our job is not to suppress or extirpate entirely, but to direct and control our emotions, to- ward a good purpose and toward the achievement of a higher level of emo- tional and cultural living. To achieve progress toward the education of our emotions I offer as my first suggestion one which comes from Briggs. He used to ask the ques- tion. How can one gauge how well educated a person is? His answer was to the effect that the breadth, depth, and variety of interests that one has in life determines the extent of his education. Frequently I have sug- gested to audiences of teachers that they try anything once, anything that is not "illegal, immoral, or fattening." I have gotten into some minor trouble exploring interests, but I am the better for these experiences, and Page 34 The Education of the Emotions I commend this practice to you. We are wise to admit ignorance when we have it and to learn quickly. Some per- sons remain ignorant through many years, because they are unable or un- willing to admit that they do not know. The cultivation of interests makes a person more interesting and more likely to have friends. Years ago I was state high school supervisor in Arkansas and occasionally picked up a hitchhiker in the days when this was not so dangerous. Just as nature ab- hors a vacuum, so I dislike driving silently hour after hour with a com- panion, and I would wonder out loud to my new passenger whether Babe Ruth would break his home run rec- ord. If I found no knowledge or in- terest in that direction, I would sug- gest that Gallant Fox might win the The Education of the Emotions Page 35 Derby. Blocked off there, I would uti- lize my three years of college Bible study and try to get the passenger started on the problems involved in predestination and free will. Unless you and I have some interest in com- mon, there is little emotional response when we meet each other, and there may be a dull void, becoming duller by the minute, or a negative reaction of disinterest or even dislike. It is especially important that high school teachers know something about baseball and basketball, or whatever it is that boys and girls like to do. The teacher's desire to learn what their interests are and to like their interests is an unselfish act on her part. Just as a certain minister may cause us to contribute sacrificially to a cause he advocates, so teachers who widen their interests and gain the re- Page 36 The Education of the Emotions spect and liking of boys and girls may bring a stronger motivation to learn and to do well. Hence I say, especially to teachers and to young people in college pre- paring for careers dealing with peo- ple, early in life cultivate broad in- terests, become seriously interested in a few things, and cultivate and con- tinue your natural curiosity to develop many interests rather than a few. As a child I learned and still recall Live and learn and ask and know, For that is the way that great and wise men grow. I do not believe the space age has de- stroyed the validity of this bit of rhyme. May I offer another suggestion, particularly to the young: cultivate The Education of the Emotions Page 37 proper emotionalized attitudes toward the diverse religions and races which we have in the United States. We live in what we call a plural culture, which is another way of saying that our heritage conies from many na- tions, many races, many religions. It is important, if we can, to avoid the age-old hatreds and suspicions of some of our European cultures, which hun- dreds of thousands of our forefathers came to this nation to escape. As Superintendent of the Pitts- burgh Public Schools, I used to sug- gest to high school students that they seek out, get to know, and learn to- respect members of a different religion and race. A typical big Pittsurgh high school of 3,000 students included Catholics, Jews, and Protestants; whites and Negroes; rich and poor; sons and daughters of day laborers Page 38 The Education of the Emotions and of the merchant princes. Yet each student had a chance, if he would take it, to "learn the grain of reason in the opposite point of view." Knowing one friendly, reasonable, and compe- tent Buddhist, for example, may keep me from regarding all Buddhists with distrust or complete intolerance. As a Protestant, I have regretted that our Catholic friends seek to en- roll every Catholic child in a Catholic school. I wish the Catholics would stay in our public schools for a portion of their lives to get to know Protest- ants and Jews and everybody better and that we might get to know them better. Those whom we do not know we sometimes distrust. Part of my initial lack of relig- ious prejudice I owe to a small-town North Carolina heritage where the few Catholics were generally liked The Education of the Emotions Pagb 39 and respected. My attitude toward Catholics is all the better because of the wonderful Irish Catholic secretary who guided me so well when I was Superintendent of the Pittsburgh Pub- lic Schools. Understanding and help- ful to a new superintendent starting in a big city, she was wise and kindly tolerant. Mrs. Hill and I used to go with her to the beautiful midnight Christmas mass of her Catholic church and afterwards to her home for the feast that followed the fast. Some of the Jews in the small town where I was born attended my father's academy and would, on cer- tain religious holidays, send us gifts of shewbread. There was mutual re- spect and in many cases friendship be- tween my father and the Jews who sent their sons to his school. My emotional attitude toward Page 40 The Education of the Emotions Negroes was strongly conditioned in my early childhood days because of Camilla and Squire, two faithful re- tainers who were kind to a rather lonely boy. They were faithful and honest. No one then or now could make me believe that "all Negroes steal" or the other canards sometimes hurled at an entire race. Why not? Because of Camilla and Squire. Whatever be our race or religion, we should bear in mind that we are either a good or a bad advertisement for the entire group to which we be- long. It was encouraging to read in Ralph McGill's column in The Nash- ville Tennessean of January 5 that Bill Hendricks, the grand dragon of the Ku Klux Klan of Florida had re- signed, stating that there was no use in contending further against the de- The Education of the Emotions Page 41 segregation of schools. He said that he was unwilling to bomb buildings or people or to destroy property in order to keep Negroes from attending school with the whites. It is interest- ing to note that General Nathan Bed- ford Forrest, who founded the orig- inal Ku Klux Klan in Tennessee after the War Between the States, was also the man who disbanded it, denounc- ing the evil practices of the bad ele- ment which had gotten control. Since emotions are to be enjoyed, as well as to be feared, please note that from emotional commitment, in small as well as important things, comes enjoyment. On January 2 I listened to the Sugar Bowl game, emotionally committed to the fortunes of Ole Miss. Other persons, emotion- ally committed to Rice, undoubtedly enjoyed the game, if not the outcome. Page 42 The Education of the Emotions We enjoy a game more when we want one side to win. We had rather watch a small high school basketball team when we know the boys or for what- ever reason want them to win than to watch a technically better professional game in which we have no interest in the outcome. This same emotional commit- ment applies to as different a subject as the enjoyment of opera. What we are not up on, we are usually down on. Unless we know something about opera to give us a feeling of familiar- ity or perhaps over the years a pleas- ant nostaligia, we usually do not en- joy it. In this connection, I would like to recommend for your personal li- brary and for your enjoyment a recent book by the same Thomas H. Briggs, entitled Opera and Its Enjoyment. It is the exemplification of Dr. Briggs' The Education of the Emotions Page 43 lifelong habit of developing many in- terests and bettering his knowledge of a few. While a graduate student in New York City, one Saturday night I was seated in the top gallery of the Metro- politan Opera House where the in- expensive seats are located. I sat by a rather ordinary-looking, poorly dress- ed, middle-aged Italian who during the early part of the opera went to sleep. His head dropped down while he snored gently. My feeling toward him included disapproval and some condescension. Why had he come if he could not stay awake? After a ten-minute nap, he waked up bright, cheerful, and refreshed. He started a conversation with me about the many stars of opera who had played the different roles of La Bo- Page 44 The Education of the Emotions heme and why he preferred a particu- lar performer to another one. He told me more about La Boheme and great performances of it by noted singers than I knew about all operas. It was a good lesson. I shall never in this world or the next look down upon an Italian who goes to sleep during an opera. We teachers should cultivate an attitude of absolute fairness toward our students, not just being fair but making sure that the students realize that we are fair. In an experiment with a begin- ning Latin class I divided the students into two sections. On occasion I asked the brighter group to grade the papers of the entire class that they might learn more Latin by having to know what was correct. I checked the papers also to prevent mistakes or partiality The Education of the Emotions Page 45 and because it was my business to do so. At the end of each six weeks, I prepared and distributed a grade sheet with vertical columns labeled A, B, C, D, and E with the name of each student in the proper place. No com- plaints came to the effect that I was humiliating Mary Lee, because she was the only one in the D group or that I was favoring somebody who was in the A group. Why? I took par- ticular pains to see that each person in the class knew how marks were de- termined. The feeling on the part of the students that by great diligence an average student might get into the A group and that by reduced effort a bright student might drop to the B group and the understanding of how marks were achieved was one reason for the success of this particular class. Page 46 The Education of the Emotions I have not always succeeded so well. When high school students are asked to describe the characteristics of their best teachers, the trait of fairness always stands near the top. Unfairness is frequently listed as a characteristic of the poorest teacher. The key is to develop the feeling among the stu- dents that whatever demand by the teacher is made is fair and that it must be met. Parents should build in children a feeling of security. Since teachers can and do serve in loco parentis, the school through the teacher sometimes supplies the security missing in the home. A feeling lasts a long, long time. Perhaps nothing is more reas- suring than the backing of parents, and next to that the backing of teach- ers. Another illustration comes from The Education of the Emotions Page 47 The Horse and Buggy Doctor, the story of a Kansas general practitioner's early struggles and his life as a coun- try doctor. He lived at college for months chiefly on potatoes secured from his father's farm. He comments that eating potatoes for weeks on end did little lifelong harm to his physical make-up, that the stomach of a boy is generally tough and will survive most any kind of physical shock. But the fact that his well-to-do farmer father let him live on potatoes caused him shame and hurt which he could not forget. Even in his sixties the in- security caused by his father's early attitude is apparent. Last October I spent ten days vis- iting our Peabody program of ad- visory educational services to the Re- public of Korea. Dr. Martin Garrison, our chief of staff in Seoul, told me of Page 48 The Education of the Emotions his contrasting experience as a farm boy starting to college. When it was time for him to enter college, his fath- er took him to the small-town bank and introduced him to the president. He handed the president a written list of his assets down to the last cow and chicken on the farm, as Dr. Garrison tells it. And then he said to the presi- dent of the bank, "My son is going to enter college, and he will be there for four years. I want you to honor his check or draft any time up to the full amount of my credit." Martin Garrison did not write a check on his father during his four years in college, being resourceful enough to earn most of his expenses. But you sense the glow of lasting pride and good feeling because he knew that his father was backing him to the limit. What finer gift from a The Education of the Emotions Page 49 father to a son is there than that which his father gave him on the eve of his departure for college? There appeared in a magazine not too long ago an account of how such a realization sometimes breaks in on a boy who, because his father is not the demonstrative type, does not know that his father really loves him. This father got up very early every winter morning in order to milk the cows and had his teen-age son get up at the same time to do his share of the milking. It was not too pleasant dur- ing the very cold, long winter. His father was so businesslike about the matter the boy thought he was order- ing him around as he would a hired man, and he sometimes felt a touch of resentment. One particularly cold and dis- agreeable morning he waked a little Page 50 The Education of the Emotions earlier than usual and overheard his father say to his mother in a nearby room, "I really don't want to wake John up this morning. It is a great hardship on a young boy. I wish I could let him sleep." He heard his mother's rejoinder, "Yes, I know how you feel, but it isn't right that you should do all of this work, and it is right that John should help you." This unplanned revelation to the son stood him in good stead throughout his life. The realization that his father genuinely hated to get him up in the morning convinced the boy of his father's unspoken love and backing. Summary I have used anecdotes to illus- trate the powerful role that emotions play in our existence. Someone has characterized intellect as a speck float- The Education of the Emotions Page 51 ing on an ocean of emotion. This may be an overstatement, but there is truth in its implication. If, for example, we could see the emotional conditions of the drivers who were behind the wheels of the cars that cause the 38,000 traffic fatalities which occur with dis- tressingly regularity every year, we would find that many fatalities were caused indirectly by the emotional at- titude of these drivers. The fact that no method works with everyone and that most any method works with some need not deter us from using the best practical approaches possible toward educating the emotions. I have reviewed a few sugges- tions made by those who have written in this general field without attempt- ing a scholarly treatment and to these Page 52 The Education of the Emotions suggestions have added some of my own. As long as we live, or at least until we reach senility, we can broad- en and deepen our interests and in- crease their variety, and in so doing add a positive base for emotional at- titudes. We may learn to know and re- spect those of other races and religions and to reconsider seriously from time to time our prejudices. We may enjoy our emotions, even those which seem minor but which add so much to daily living. We teachers by a continual atti- tude of fairness toward students and by successful efforts to have students understand our fairness may exem- plify a good emotional attitude to- ward others. We as parents and teachers may The Education of the Emotions Page 53 contribute to the emotional security of children by backing them whole- heartedly. We may weigh carefully the well known fact that learning is rarely single. In the recent report of the Presi- dent's Commission on National Goals, we find this concluding word. The American citizen in the years ahead ought to devote a larger portion of his time and energy directly to the solution of the nation's problems . . . Above all, Americans must demonstrate in every aspect of their lives the fallacy of the purely selfish atti- tude--the materialistic ethic. Our faith is that man lives, not by bread alone, but by self-respect, by regard for other men, by con- Page 54 The Education of the Emotions victions of right and wrong, by strong religious faith . . . Man has never been an island unto him- self. The shores of his concern have expanded from his neigh- borhood to his nation, from his nation to his world. Free men have always known the necessity for responsibility. The basic goal for each American is to achieve a sense of responsibility as broad as his worldwide concerns and as compelling as the dangers and opportunities he confronts. I believe it was Addison who said that man can only choose to deserve well of fate, that it is not given to him to determine what shall be his fate. This may apply to our emotional at- titude towards the future today. I am sorry for the scare stories about bombs The Education of the Emotions Page 55 and the bad general state of the world. True enough, our chances of blowing ourselves up are better than they have ever been. I think, however, that we should rather worry about whether we are worth saving from the bomb, whether we as a people deserve better things of fate. Better this than to wor- ry constantly and do nothing. We all favor the wise steps of preparation against disaster which our government takes. In one of my early textbooks there was a picture of a New England Puritan with blunderbuss on his shoulder and Bible under his arm, walking with his wife and children through the snow to the church. He meant to have peace and religious worship, even if he had to fight. For at least a generation or more we shall live in a very uncertain world. We need all the more to educate our Page 56 The Education of the Emotions feelings and those of others, to have faith in the Supreme Creator of the universe, and to believe that we shall continue to live with some purpose and distinction here on earth. I am hoping that our new Presi- dent and his new administration will give us a vision of greatness. Such a vision was given by Mr. George Pea- body in 1867 when he established the first philanthropic educational foun- dation in history. I have always en- joyed quoting from his letter in which he says, "I give you, gentlemen, one million dollars . . . And now looking beyond my stay on earth, as may be permitted to one who has passed the limit of threescore and ten years, I see our country united and prosperous, richer and more powerful than ever before." Such was the vision of a man be- The Education of the Emotions Page 57 yond seventy years of age who was writing just after the bitterest war any nation can have, a civil war. His prophecy has been realized. We need another Peabody vision with its faith and devotion to fit the needs of an- other century. Is it not incumbent upon us to accept the responsibilities which go with our great privileges? We may not know precisely what these respon- sibilities are, or how best we can serve the underdeveloped nations, how much materiel and food we should send to those who are starving or weak; but I do pray that we may have the kind of leadership which will en- able us to discharge well our part. Let us, as Addison said, deserve well of fate. With such an emotional attitude our nation, under God, may achieve Page 58 The Education of the Emotions greatness and we and our children may live to see a great future of which the past is but prologue.